Site Menu

null.gif Home
null.gif Members
null.gif News
null.gif Downloads
null.gif Content
null.gif Site
null.gif Drugs
null.gif Physics
null.gif Nature
null.gif Poetry
null.gif Chess

Site Info

Last SeenLast Seen
Server TrafficServer Traffic
  • Total: 9,717,618
  • Today: 382
Server InfoServer Info
  • Aug 14, 2022
  • 03:25 pm EDT
 

Resources



Passwords

PC Tools Password Generator
Boutrager CGI Passwords
.htaccess Password Generator

Favicons

Favicon maker- Create a favicon from any image

CSS Scrollbars

CSS Scrollbar

SEO

SEO: Search Engine Optimization
SEO: Search Engine Optimization

Powered by RavenNuke™

Powered by RavenNuke(tm)

Evaders Squadron Coding

Evaders Squadron Coding

Clan Templates

Php Nuke Clan Themes

DaDaNuke

dadanuke.org: addons, themes, fixes, mods and support for PhPNuke/RavenNuke™ CMS

Papa Mike Creations

Papa Mike Creations

Honeypot

Stop Spam Harvesters, Join Project Honey Pot

VB Script

VisualBasicScript.com

PhP Resources

The PHP Resource Index

PhP Junkyard

Free PHP scripts for download

Coffeecup

CoffeeCup - HTML Editor- Flash - Web Design Software

Memory

Crucial Memory

NMAP

NMAP Security Scanner

Pirate Bay
The Pirate Bay

AX4
Tricks • Secrets • Bugs • Fixes

Tizag
Tizag Web Tutorials

Reporter's Desktop
Reporter's Desktop

NukeSentinel™

This is the list of NukeSentinel(tm) banned IP addresses.

  • 20.25.143.*
  • 89.45.90.*
  • 91.90.122.*
  • 194.113.35.*
  • 136.144.17.*
  • 193.233.209.*
  • 159.203.84.*
  • 212.58.200.*
  • 45.132.225.*
  • 69.167.42.*
  • 51.141.165.*
  • 45.143.164.*
  • 64.225.0.*
  • 98.159.98.*
  • 193.233.210.*
  • 161.129.70.*
  • 20.113.154.*
  • 20.219.1.*
  • 20.119.37.*
  • 20.109.179.*

Trophy

Thank you, Navy SEALs

NukeSentinel™

You have been warned!
We have caught 2663 shameful hackers.

Could We Be Wrong About The Speed Of Light?

Stephen Luntz

Supernova 1987a

Photo credit:  NASA. Supernova 1987a gave astronomers an opportunity to study stellar explosions to an unmatched extent, and the findings continue to challenge physics theorems

A challenge has been thrown down to the consistency of the speed of light, based on an anomaly from the most closely observed supernovae of all time.

In 1987 astronomers witnessed the only supernova in 400 years close enough to Earth to see with the naked eye. The first hint of the event came not from telescopes, but neutrino detectors.

Neutrinos and photons were assumed to have crossed space between the Large Magellanic Cloud and us at the speed of light. However, light does not always travel at 3x108 m/s. Just as glass or water will slow light down, the dense core of a supernova is expected to impede photons so that neutrinos will reach us first.

Models of supernovae suggest the delay should be about three hours. However, rather than witnessing a single burst of neutrinos three hours before the first light was observed, detectors picked up two bursts, one 7.7 hours earlier, and the other 4.7 hours. Some models of supernovae predict two collapses, and thus two rounds of neutrinos, but the timing is puzzling since it is the first round that should beat the light by three hours.

chart

Professor James Franson of the University of Maryland, Baltimore, believes that these observations require a rewrite of light's behavior. He claims that quantum mechanical effects slow light down under certain circumstances. The effect is very, very small, but over a distance of 163,000 light years could account for the discrepancy in observations.

In the New Journal of Physics, Franson draws on vacuum polarization, a well established phenomenon where a photon of light sometimes turns into an electron-positron pair. These then recombine to become a photon again, traveling along the same path, but after a tiny delay (see diagram).

chart

However, Franson argues that these events are not random, but affected by gravitational fields.

"Roughly speaking, the gravitational potential changes the energy of a virtual electron-positron pair, which in turn produces a small change in the energy of a photon,” Franson says. “This results in a small correction to the angular frequency of a photon and thus its velocity.” He describes the equivalent effects on neutrinos as “negligibly small in comparison”.

If Franson is right gravitational fields, particularly from the center of the galaxy, would have slowed photons down by the required amount. “The predictions of this model are in reasonable agreement with the experimental observations from Supernova 1987a, in which the first neutrinos arrived 7.7 hours before the first photons,” Franson says.

The alternative explanation is that the second neutrino burst was the one triggered at the same time as the original release of light. Even if the delay was 4.7 hours, rather than three, the puzzle of the earlier neutrino flurry remains. Directional detection of neutrinos is very poor, so some astronomers have assumed that these neutrinos were a coincidence, originating from some other source. Franson claims the probability of such a chance event is 1 in 10,000.

IFLScience


Short URL:
SpaceTime
Posted on Saturday, March 07, 2015 @ 19:09:48 EST by Southern 

click Related        click Rate This        click Share
Associated TopicsSpaceTime

Topics

Forums

Babes


© ThemeFreaks

GCalendar

<< August 2022 >>

S M T W T F S
  123456
78910111213
14151617181920
21222324252627
28293031     

bookmark site


Bookmark Us
Bookmark Us

Set as Homepage
Set as Homepage


Support RavenNuke™

RavenNuke(tm) v2.40.01

Proverbs

30:32, If thou hast done foolishly in lifting up thyself, or if thou hast thought evil, lay thine hand upon thy mouth.

R.O.P.: R.I.P.

Thousands of Deadly Islamic Terror Attacks Since 9/11


Islam spreads like a virus....
more: Islam violence



List of Islamic Terror Attacks For the Past 2 Months

Support Our Troops

Support Our Troops


© ThemeFreaks

Honey Pot

Bots in the pot!
We have [359] bots in the pot!

Page Generation: 0.68 Seconds